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THE SHIP                                        85

A loadline certificate is issued at the time of the assign-
ment and must be presented at times of clearance at customs.
The granting of a certificate is conditional upon the ship
undergoing periodical survey.

, Freeboard is the distance measured amidship from the
load line to the freeboard deck of a vessel (maindeck in
single or 'tween deck vessels, and shelter deck hi shelter
deck vessels). The penalties for overloading are severe.
The master has full authority to see that his marks are not
submerged, and through neglecting to observe this pre-
caution may lose his "ticket," which is the worst possible
punishment any master may receive.

If, for example, it was agreed to load a vessel, and on the
stipulated amount of tonnage being placed on board the
vessel the master found that his marks were submerged,
he would have full authority, irrespective of the charter-
party conditions, to demand that sufficient cargo should
be taken off his vessel to comply with the load line

For a mercantile ton, or freight ton, the basis is ^40 cubic
feet per ton, but in measuring tonnage of ships the basis
is IQO cubic feet In naval vessels tonnage is calculated on
the displacement or actual weight of the vessel.

jjross tonnage is the number of tons in units of zoo cubic
feet of the total space enclosed hi the vessel. Net tonnage
is the measurement of the ship in units of 100 cubic feet of
the enclosed spaces of the ship, excluding such spaces as are
used for machinery, ship's stores and crew space; in other
words, spaces allocated for the navigation of the ship are
deducted, the approximate ratio of gross to net tonnage
being about 3/2, although this, of course, must vary in
individual cases.

Under feck tonnage is the measurement of the ship in
units of 100 cubic feet of all parts under the main or tonnage
deck of the vessel; this measurement does not, as in gross
tonnage, include the poop, bridge, forecastle, or shelter
decks and deck houses.                      *              "

Vessels' dead weighL'is the number of tons IspaiAd by

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